(i) Substructure or foundations, and
Sub-structure or Foundation is the lower portion of the building, usually located below the ground level, which transmits the loads of the super-structure to the supporting soil. A foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground to which the loads are transmitted.
Super-structure is that part of the structure which is above ground level, and which serves the purpose of its intended use. A part of the super-structure, located between the ground level and (he floor level is known as plinth.
Plinth is therefore defined as the portion of the structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground. The level of the floor is usuatly known as the plinth level The built-up covered area measured al ihe floor level is known as plinth area.
A building has the following components
2. Masonry units : wall and columns.
3. Floor structures.
4. Roof structures.
5. Doors, windows and other openings.
6. Vertical transportation structures, such as stairs, lifis, ramps etc.
7. Building finishes.