Excavation of foundation trenches can be done either manually with the help of conventional implements, shown in Fig. 2.29 or with the help of special mechanical equipment. Fig. 2.30 (a) shows a drag shovel which can excavate the foundation trench upto a width of 1.7 m. Fig. 2.30 (b) shows a multi-bucket trencher or a itcher, which can excavate treches upto 1.5 m width and 5 m deep. The boom iS raised and Iowered as required by the driver moving a lever and can be locked in any position. The spoil is carried up from the trench by buckets (having cutting teeth) attached to a continuous steel chain and tipped on to a belt conveyor at the top the rise, from where it is deposited to either left or right hand side of the trench.