PENETRATION TESTS - SITE EXPLORATION.

These tests involve the measurements of the rcsistance to penetration of a sampling spoon, a cone or other shaped tool under dynamic or static loadings. The resistance is empirically correlated with sorne of the engineering properties of soil, such as density index, bearing capacity etc. Two commonly used penetration tests are

(i) Standard penetration test, The test (IS : 2131—1963) is performed in a clean hole, 55 to 150 mm in diameter. A casing or drilling mud may be used to support the sides of the hole....

(ii) Dutch cone test. This test is used for getting a continuous record of the resistance of soil by penetrating steadily under static pressurc a cone with a base of 10cm^2 (3.6 cm in dia.) and an angle of 60º  at vertex....

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