where T is the relative stiffness factor expressed as

In Eqs (16.9) through (16.13), A and B are the sets of non-dimensional coefficients whose values are given in

**Table 16.2**. The principle of superposition for the deflection of a laterally loaded

__pile is shown in__

**Fig. 16.4.**The A and B coefficients are given as a function of the depth coefficient, Z, expressed as

The A and B coefficients tend to zero when the depth coefficient Z is equal to or greater than 5 or otherwise the length of the pile is more than 5T. Such piles are called long or flexible piles. The length of a pile loses its significance beyond 5T.

Normally we need deflection and slope at ground level. The corresponding equations for these may be expressed as

**Figure 16.4**Principle of superposition for the deflection of laterally loaded piles

yg for fixed head is

**Table 16.2**The A and B coefficients as obtained by Reese and Matlock (1956) for long vertical piles on the assumption Es = nhx

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