Raymond Step-Tapered Piles.

Raymond step-tapered piles.  These consist of  a corrugated steel shell driven into the ground using a mandrel.

The  shell consists of sections with variable diameters that increase from the tip to the pile head.  A mandrel is a heavy, rigid steel tube shaped to fit inside the shell.  The mandrel is withdrawn after the shell is driven and the shell filled with concrete.   Raymond step-tapered piles are predecessors of drilled  shafts and are still popular in the southern United States.

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