1. The foundation must be stable against shear failure of the supporting soil.
2. The foundation must not settle beyond a tolerable limit to avoid damage to the structure.
The other factors that require consideration are the location and depth of the foundation. In deciding the location and depth, one has to consider the erosions due to flowing water, underground defects such as root holes, cavities, unconsolidated fills, ground water level, presence of expansive soils etc.
In selecting a type of foundation, one has to consider the functions of the structure and the load it has to carry, the subsurface condition of the soil, and the cost of the superstructure.
Design loads also play an important part in the selection of the type of foundation. The various loads that are likely to be considered are (i) dead loads, (ii) live loads, (iii) wind and earthquake forces, (iv) lateral pressures exerted by the foundation earth on the embedded structural elements, and (v) the effects of dynamic loads.
In addition to the above loads, the loads that are due to the subsoil conditions are also required to be considered. They are (i) lateral or uplift forces on the foundation elements due to high water table, (ii) swelling pressures on the foundations in expansive soils, (iii) heave pressures on foundations in areas subjected to frost heave and (iv) negative frictional drag on piles where pile foundations are used in highly compressible soils.
-Steps for the Selection of the Type of Foundation. In choosing the type of foundation, the design engineer must perform five successive steps.
Figure 12.1 Types of shallow foundations: (a) plain concrete foundation, (b) stepped reinforced concrete foundation, (c) reinforced concrete rectangular foundation, and (d) reinforced concrete wall foundation.