The design of anchored sheet piling by the free-earth method is based on the assumption that the piling is perfectly rigid and the earth pressure distribution is hydrostatic, obeying classical earth pressure theory. In reality, the sheet piling is rather flexible and the earth pressure differs considerably from the hydrostatic distribution.

As such the bending moments M(max) calculated by the lateral earth pressure theories are higher than the actual values. Rowe (1952) suggested a procedure to reduce the calculated moments obtained by the/ree earth support method.

Anchored Piling in Granular Soils
Rowe (1952) analyzed sheet piling in granular soils and stated that the following significant factors are required to be taken in the design

1. The relative density of the soil
2. The relative flexibility of the piling which is expressed as

Anchored Piling in Cohesive Soils
For anchored piles in cohesive soils, the most significant factors are (Rowe, 1957)

1. The stability number

2. The relative height of piling a

Fig. 20.20 gives charts for computing design moments for pile walls in granular and cohesive soils.

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