**Loadings**Since dead and imposed loads are approximately equal, a

combined partial load factor of γP = 1.5 will be used.

**Area of base**Adopt a 3.0 m × 3.0 m square base, i.e. L = B = 3.0 m (

**see Fig. 11.25**). Reactive design pressure on base for concrete design

Fig. 11.25 Reinforced pad base design example. |

**Depth of base**The base and its reinforcement must be capable of resisting bending, beam shear and punching shear. At ﬁrst glance it is not always possible to judge which is critical. The process of selecting a suitable depth for the base is simpliﬁed by use of the charts for estimating effective depth. The effective depth will be checked for each case, assuming a typical reinforcement percentage

of between 0.25% and 0.50%. The results are shown in

**Table 11.1**.

**Table 11.1**Estimating effective depth for reinforced pad base design example

This indicates that bending is critical, i.e. it requires the greatest effective depth, for low percentages of reinforcement.

For this particular example an average effective depth in both directions of d = 600 mm will be selected.

Overall depth of base is, h = 600 + 25 (bar diameter)

+ 50 (cover)

= 675 mm

**Bending**From

**Fig. 11.25**, the cantilever moment at face of base plate is

*Shear*The base should be checked for both beam shear and punching shear, since either may be critical. Grade C40 concrete has been speciﬁed.

**Local shear at column face**The shear at the face of the column should be checked.

Allowable concrete shear stress, vc = 0.57 N/mm2

From BS 8110: Part 1: 3.4.5.8, the critical location for beam shear is at a distance 2d = 2 × 600 = 1200 mm from the face of the load (i.e. from the edge of the base plate in this example). The shear force acting across this failure plane is

Vbeam = (design pressure) × (area of base beyondcritical location)

**Punching shear**The critical location for punch- ing shear for a square load is a square perimeter a distance 1.5d = 1.5 × 600 = 900 mm from the face of the load.

The length of one side of this perimeter is

Area of base outside of perimeter

Comparison with vbeam = 0.12 N/mm2 indicates that, in this instance, punching shear is more critical than beam shear.

This is normally the case with square pad foundations. If however a foundation size of say 2 m × 4 m had been chosen in this example, beam shear may well become critical.

**Local bond**Although not covered by BS 8110, local bond can be a problem in foundation design, and should therefore be checked at sections with high shear stress. Local bond is given by

where ∑ us is the sum of the bar perimeters at the section being considered.

Punching shear, Vu = 2979 kN

The length of the punching shear is u = 8800 mm.

T25 bars @ 175 centres each way are proposed. The total number of bars crossing the shear perimeter is u/175 = 50.

The local bond stress is

where la is the lever arm which CP 110 approximates to the effective depth d.

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