However, this is the minority case. The caps consist of concrete pads or beams constructed at the head of the piles to provide the connection between the pile and super-structure (see Fig. 9.44).
In addition to transferring the vertical load from the super-structure to the foundation, there is often a need to provide lateral restraint to the tops of the piles, particularly where less than three piles are provided. For small low-rise developments (single- or two-storey construction) the amount of restraint required to the tops of the piles can be provided by the use of the ground ﬂoor slab or a lightweight raft foundation (see Fig. 9.45).
Fig. 9.44 Pile caps.
Fig. 9.45 Pile cap/beam restraint.