### FUNICULAR STRUCTURES

The funicular concept can be best described and visualized with cables or chains, suspended from two points, that adjust their form for any load in tension. But funicular structures may also be compressed like arches. Yet, although funicular tension structures adjust their form for pure tension under any load, funicular compression structures may be subject to bending in addition to compression since their form is rigid and not adaptable. The funicular line for tension and compression are inversely identical; the form of a cable becomes the form of an arch upside-down. Thus funicular forms may be found on tensile elements.

1 Funicular tension triangle under single load

2 Funicular compression triangle under single load

3 Funicular tension trapezoid under twin loads

4 Funicular compression trapezoid under twin loads

5 Funicular tension polygon under point loads

6 Funicular compression polygon under point load

7 Funicular tension parabola under uniform load

8 Funicular compression parabola under uniform load

IBM traveling exhibit by Renzo Piano A series of trussed arches in linear extrusion form a vault space The trussed arches consist of wood bars with metal connectors for quick assembly and disassembly as required for the traveling exhibit. Plastic panels form the enclosing skin, The trussed arches provide depth and rigidity to accommodate various load conditions

Exhibit hall Hanover by Thomas Herzog

1 Funicular tension triangle under single load

2 Funicular compression triangle under single load

3 Funicular tension trapezoid under twin loads

4 Funicular compression trapezoid under twin loads

5 Funicular tension polygon under point loads

6 Funicular compression polygon under point load

7 Funicular tension parabola under uniform load

8 Funicular compression parabola under uniform load

**Vault**IBM traveling exhibit by Renzo Piano A series of trussed arches in linear extrusion form a vault space The trussed arches consist of wood bars with metal connectors for quick assembly and disassembly as required for the traveling exhibit. Plastic panels form the enclosing skin, The trussed arches provide depth and rigidity to accommodate various load conditions

**Suspension roof**Exhibit hall Hanover by Thomas Herzog