Forces on structures include tension, compression, shear, bending, and torsion. Their effects and notations are tabulated below and all but bending and related shear are described on the following pages. Bending and related shear are more complex and further described in the next part.
1 Axial force (tension and compression) 2 Shear 3 Bending 4 Torsion 5 Force actions 6 Symbols and notations
A Tension B Compression C Shear D Bending E Torsion