Monday, April 12, 2021

Environmentally Lighting Design Strategies

 Several approaches to energy - effective and energy - efficient lighting have been proposed by noted lighting experts. Nancy Clanton suggests six aspects of lighting to focus on to achieve a low - power density (i.e., watts used per square foot):

1.     Quality daylight

2.     Ambient, task, and accent lighting

3.     Light - colored surfaces

4.     Energy - efficient lighting equipment

5.     Combination of automatic and manual lighting controls

6.     Light surfaces, not volumes

The Advanced Building Systems Integration Consortium, Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics (ABSIC/CBPD), provides seven guidelines for high performance lighting (Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics n.d.):

1.     Daylight-dominant lighting

2.     Task lighting and ambient lighting

3.     Indirect - direct lighting

4.     High-performance luminaires

5.     Plug-and-play fi xtures

6.     Dynamic zoning and advanced controls

7.     System integration

The ABSCIC/CBPD also has twelve major decisions for other interior systems.

A set of strategies to achieve energy - effi cient lighting has been presented by Minnesota Department of Public Service in Commercial Building Lighting Standards: Educational Project (1993). The focus is on six aspects of lighting (needs, hardware, daylighting, control, maintenance, and operations scheduling) and defi nes action items for each:

1.     Lighting needs (tasks and illumination requirements)

·        Identify visual tasks and locations.

·        Group task with same illuminance requirements.

·        Properly locate luminaires to provide light to tasks.

·        Consider light colors for walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture.

2.     Lighting hardware (lamps and luminaires)

·        Install lamps with higher efficacy .

·        Investigate the use of reduced wattage lamps in existing luminaires when illuminance levels are greater than recommended .

·        Consider reduced - wattage fl uorescent lamps in existing luminaires.

·        Consider replacing existing low - wattage incandescent lamps with fewer high - wattage incandescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps.

·        Assess luminaire effectiveness for lighting [distribution and efficiency].

·        Consider energy - effi cient, electronic ballasts.

·        Consider using heat - removal luminaires.

3.     Daylighting

·        Use daylighting when it is appropriate.

·        Coordinate the plan organization to maximize the use of daylighting.

·        Assess which daylighting tasks are critical and noncritical (indirect, reflected, or filtered daylight vs. direct sunlight).

·        Maximize the effectiveness of fenestration and shading controls.

·        Consider the use of light colors (see above).

·        Increase the distribution of light deep into the space by using light shelves and light - colored room surfaces.

·        Integrate electric lighting with daylighting design.

4.     Light controls

·        Install switching to adjust illumination levels to activity requirements.

·        Consider occupancy sensors to turn lights on and off as room occupancy varies.

·        Consider the use of dimming systems to adjust illumination levels.

·        Consider the use of time clocks to adjust lighting with occupancy schedule.

5.     Lighting maintenance

·        Evaluate the present lighting - maintenance program.

·        Clean luminaires and replace lamps on regular maintenance schedule.

·        Replace outdated or damaged luminaires.

6.     Operating schedules

·        Analyze lighting use during working and building - cleaning periods.

·        Light building for occupied periods only and as security requires.

·        Try to schedule routine building cleaning during occupied hours.

·        Restrict night parking to specific lots.

Environmentally responsible lighting design that is both energy effective and energy efficient becomes easier and more achievable with better products and processes.

The contribution of ERLD to environmentally responsible interior design can be substantial.